Biology

Test 1

Science is falsifiable

two classifications of prokaryotes:
domain Bacteria and domain Archaea

Living organisms:
exhibiting homeostasis, metabolism, growth, reproduction, inheritance

evidence for life having only evolved once:
biochemical similarity of all life on Earth

which is there no scientific evidence:
life evolved from non-life via chemical evolution of increasinly stable molecules

first self replicating chemical:
RNA

mutation - radiation; chemical stress; entropy; replication error
-> genetic drift (rand)
--> natural selection

Shared characteristics between species is: Homologous

gene - A piece of DNA encoding a (functional) protein.

allele - different versions of the same gene

photosynthesis evolved as early as 2.5

Change Miller and Urey -reducing atmosphere should be changed

transition between non-life and life occurred with the synthesis of the first self-replicating molecule.

clay particles are electrically charged, attracting organic molecules to its surface, and thus bringing monomers into close contact

*Lamarcks theory of evolution

*Extinctions

Natural selection does not deal with immigration or emigration

*Martin evolution
Allele frequencies may be altered by non-random mating

Anagenesis is continuous change in a single lineage of organisms

The cave fish would be ecological and morphological species

Evolution is the change in the distribution of genotypes within a population

Gregor Mendel's work showed that character inheritance was particulate

modern whales have pelvic bones but not hind limbs is evidence of descent with modification

Carolus Linnaeus base his classification system on morphology and anatomy

Catastrophism explains the existance of the fossil record.

distantly related organisms share fewer homologous structures

—-

Test 1 preview answers:
01) D, C, B, E, A, A, C, C, (E),
10) D, D, B, D, C, A, C, E, D, A,`A, D, C, D, C, A, E, A/D, A/B, E,
30) C, A, D, D, D, B, D, B, B, E
40) E, B, A, B, D,`B, A, D, D, A
50) B, B, C

Hardy-Weinberg

Book notes:
biosphere->ecosystems->communities->populations
DNA is the substance of genes
library of genetic instructions that are inherited: genome
Reductionism-reducing complex system to simpler components to study them
Species->Genus->Family->Order->Class->Phylum->Kingdom->Domain
Domains - Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Life could have formed from protobionts
RNA catalysts: ribozymes - 3 dimensional shape

Stromatolites oldest known fossils: 3.5 billion years old; bacteria and sediment
Autotrophs and heterotrophs were first prokaryotes. Sole inhabitants of earth from 3.5-2 billion years ago.
ATP synthesis is in all 3 domains.
Eukaryotic fossils 2.1 billion years old.
Serial endosymbiosis: mitochondria evolved before plastids.
Plastids and mitochondria were endosymbiotic.
genetic annealing: horizontal gene transfers between different bacterial and archaean lineages
analogous structures that evolved independently are called homoplasies
scientific name - binomial (genus, specific epithet)
evolution - change over time in the genetic composition of a population
Darwin-natural selection; Mendel-Inheritance; Wallace-natural selection; Linnaeus - taxonomy
Most fossils in sedimentary rocks
Lyell - uniformitarianism - same geological process as in past and at same rate
first multicellular organisms were colonies
Lamarck - use and disuse; first comprehensive explanation for evolution
Wallace - first to publish on evolution
descent with modification - darwin's phrase about evolution
artificial selection - selective breeding
population - smallest unit that can evolve; interbreeding individuals of a species and geographic area
homology-similar limbs/whatever from common ancestry
biogeography-geographic distribution of species
endemic-species found no where else in world
microevolution-change in genetic makeup of a population from generation to generation; evolutionary change on its smallest scale
population genetics-study of how populations change genetically over time
gene pool-aggregate of genes in a population
gene flow-transfer of alleles between populations
genetic drift-fluctuations in allele frequencies between generations
Only mutations in cell lines that produce gametes can be passed to offspring.
Usually mutations are in somatic cells and lost when individual dies

Test 2

Organismal Ecology - Organism's structure, physiology, behavior to meet environmental challenges
Population Ecology - How many individuals of a species live in an area
Community Ecology - Interacting species in a community
Ecosystem - abiotic + community
Landscape Ecology - Arrays of ecosystems
biosphere - global ecosystem
habitat selecting behavior
biotic factors in habitat - other species or diseases


Proximate Questions-"How", trigger for behavior
Ultimate Questions-"Why", Fitness
ethology-study of animal behavior
fixed action pattern (FAP!!! LOL!)-unlearned behavior triggered by sign stimulus
imprinting-sensitive period of learning, limited phase
innate behavior-developmentally fixed behavior; same behavior exhibited by all of a population, is a genetic influence
kinesis-change in activity due to stimulus
taxis-automatic movement toward or away from stimulus
signal-behavior that causes change in animal behavior
communication-reception and response of signals
pheromones-communication using odors


Optimal foraging theory-foraging compromise between nutrition and cost of obtaining food
promiscuous-no lasting relationships
monogamous-one m/f
polygamous-one m/f multiple partners
agnostic behavior-contest for a resource
game theory - RPS population
altruism-selflessness
inclusive fitness-total effect of proliferating genes
Hamilton's rule-r(isk)B(benefit) < C(cost) then altruism
kin selection-natural selection that favors altruism towards kin
reciprocal altruism-nonkin altruism, exchange of aid
social learning-learning by observing, forms culture
mate choice copying-pick mates that are similar to those that are already successful
sociobiology-behavior characterists exist because they are expressions of genes due to natural selection
Type 1 curve - humans
Type 2 curve - constant death rate
Type 3 curve - high death rate to low death rate
big bang reproduction,semelparity-reproduce all at once and then die
repeated reproduction,iteroparity
carrying capacity (K)-maximum population an environment can support
logistic growth-S shaped growth, restricted by K
K-selection - density-dependant selection
r-selection - density-independant selection (best in low densities)
density-independant - birth/death rate does not change with population
density-dependant


interspecific competition - species compete for limited resources
competitive exclusion - one of the local species goes extinct
ecological niche - total biotic and abiotic resources a species uses
fundamental niche - potential
realized niche - actual
character displacement - tendancy for two species to be divergant and have resource partitioning
cryptic coloration - camouflage
aposematic coloration - warning colors
batesian mimicry - harmless species mimics a dangerous species
Mullerian minicry - two or more species mimic each other
endoparasites - live inside host
ectoparasites - live outside host
paraasitoidism - aliens, facehuggers, etc.
commensalism - benefits one species but does not affect(?) the other
-
species richness - total number of different species in a community
relative abundance - proportion of each species
energetic hypothesis - food chain is limited by inefficiency of energy transfer
dynamic stability hypothesis - long food chains are less stable than short ones
keystone species - species hold important niches
biomanipulation - changing the bottom-up or top-down model to balance
intermediate disturbance hypothesis - moderate levels of disturbance lead to greater species diversity
ecological succession - one species being replaced by another
primary succession - initial lifeforms to an area
secondary succession - later lifeforms in the area
evapotranspiration - evaporation of water from soil and transpiration of water from plants
species-area curve - more species the larger the area …
integrated hypothesis - community locked in mandatory biotic interactions to form a superorganism.
invidualistic hypothesis - assembly of species due to chance


primary production - amount of light energy converted to chemical energy in an ecosystem
1% of light energy is converted to chemical energy
NPP(Net Primary Production)=GPP(Gross)-R(espiration by the plants)
actual evapotranspiration - annual amount of water transpired from plants and landscape
secondary production - amount of chemical energy converted to biomass in an organism
trophic efficiency - percentage of production from one level to the next
green world hypothesis - herbavores helds in check by predators/parasites/disease
biogeochemical cycles - nutrient circuits involve aboitic and boitc components
critical load - amount of added nutrient (nitrogen or phosporus) that a plant can absorb without hurting the ecosystem
biological magnification - top levels most affected by pollutants

Test 3

Answers to practice test:
1) B
2) A
3) A
4) E
5) D
6) B
7) D
8) D (heat and entropy are related)
9) A
10) D (euk can also be single celled btw)
11) E
12) B
13) C
14) D
15) E
16) A (sea is full of them)
17) D (ribo are in rough ER)
18) E
19) C (estrogen, testosterone for instance)
20) C
21) D
22) E
23) E
24) C
25) C
26) A
27) B
28) A
29) C
30) E
31) B
32) C
33) D
34) A (C4 plant)
35) E
36) C
37) D (RNA is a poly)
38) B
39) B
40) B
41) B
42) A
43) D
44) D
45) D

Test 4

1) A
2) A
3) B
4) A
5) D
6) C
7) E
8) E
9) B
10) A
11) C
12) E
13) D
14) D
15) E
16) B
17) B
18) B
19) D
20) C
21) C
22) A
23) D
24) A
25) C
26) E
27) A/E
28) B
29) D
30) D
31) C
32) B
33) B
34) E
35) B
36) A
37) E
38) C
39) C
40) D
41) E
42) E
43) B

Test 5

Cell differentiation - cells become specialized
Morphogenesis - "creation of form"
apical meristems - embryonic regions in tips of shoots and roots.
cell differences come from gene expression, not from differences in genomes
totipotent - cells can dedifferentiate (plants)
chromatin structure is altered as we grow older, not the dna sequence
pluripotent - able to differentiate into multiple but not all cell types
signal transduction pathway - signal from cell's surface is converted to a cellular response
local regulators - influence only cells in vicinity
ligand - molecule specifically binding to another
receptor tyrosine kinase - > 1 signal transduction pathway at once
kinase - enzyme that catalyzes phosphate transfers

Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License